Latest Research Results

SA1D-CNN: A Separable and Attention Based Lightweight Sensor Fault Diagnosis Method for Solar Insecticidal Lamp Internet of Things

1) A lightweight 1D-CNN-based sensor fault diagnosis scheme for SIL-IoTs nodes is proposed, namely, separable and attention 1D-CNN (SA1D-CNN). By diagnosing faults in SIL-IoTs nodes, fault states are transmitted to the cloud rather than all measurements. In this work, we focus on a lightweight fault diagnosis scheme rather than an exhaustive survey of fault types in SIL-IoTs nodes.
2) Because data fluctuation cases are caused by high voltage pulse discharge of the SIL (no-fault state and may lead to the misdiagnosis of faults), we propose the time-channel attention module (TCAM) to enhance fault-related features and suppress irrelevant features.
3) To reduce diagnostic delay and data transmission, a lightweight and easy implementing fault diagnosis model (namely SA1D-CNN) is embedded and performed in the SIL-IoTs node for the first time. SA1D-CNN is composed of depthwise separable convolution and TCAM.
4)The diagnostic accuracy of the proposed method is verified in SIL-IoTs nodes. The results indicate that the proposed method has the best trade-off performance between diagnostic accuracy and computationally efficiency than the referenced algorithms.

[1] Xing Yang, Lei Shu, Kailiang Li, Zhiqiang Huo, Yu Zhang. SA1D-CNN: A Separable and Attention Based Lightweight Sensor Fault Diagnosis Method for Solar Insecticidal Lamp Internet of Things[J]. IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, 2022. doi: 10.1109/OJIES.2022.3172899.

Target-Barrier Coverage Improvement in an Insecticidal Lamps Internet of UAVs

We combine the advantages of UAVs and ILs-IoTs to construct a new IL-IoUAVs framework in the practical applications of pest control for smart agriculture.

We formulate the optimisation problem of the deployment as the minimisation of the number of IL-UAVs for constructing the target-barrier coverage, which the first study of the probabilistic sensing model in the target-barrier coverage problem, to the best of our knowledge.

We propose a deterministic deployment strategy to solve the optimisation problem for the deployment of IL-UAVs. After we make the analysis of the target-barrier circles and its properties, a merged algorithm is derived to construct the optimal $\epsilon$-target-barrier coverage.

Fig. 1: Our designed IL-UAV node and the architecture of an IL-IoUAV.

Pengju Si, Zhumu Fu, Lei Shu*, Yuli Yang, Kai Huang and Ye Liu. Target-Barrier Coverage Improvement in an Insecticidal Lamps Internet of UAVs[J]. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2022.

Physical Security and Safety of IoT Equipment: A Survey of Recent Advances and Opportunities

Compared with other surveys in the field, this survey provides a deeper summary of the universal and specific features of the typical equipment to enable researchers to have a comprehensive and quick understanding of equipment with a strong research foundation.
 
We provide an overview of anti-theft and anti-vandalism schemes. Moreover, we explore and discuss how to adopt AI solutions.
 
We present future research opportunities which contribute to locating, modeling, evaluating, and managing IoT equipment.
 

Xing Yang, Lei Shu*, Ye Liu, GP. Hancke, Ferrag Mohamedamine, Kai Huang. Physical Security and Safety of IoT Equipment: A Survey of Recent Advances and Opportunities​[J]. IEEE Transaction on Industrial Informatics, 2021.

On Enabling Mobile Crowd Sensing for Data Collection in Smart Agriculture - A Vision

(i) Based on the deployed MCS system, we review the typical MCS’s systems for different urban scenarios. Compared with the existing agricultural data collection methods, i. e., RSS, UAV, WSN, and CS, we find that AMCSs have significant benefits in flexibility, collecting implicit data, and low-cost requirements. However, we also note that AMCSs may still possess limitations regarding data integrity and quality to be considered a future work.

(ii) We analyze the crucial factors of combining MCS with agriculture. These factors, including the number of potential users, developed agriculture-related APPs, farmer’s experience, and cooperation between agribusiness and farmers, exist implicit relationships. Farmers, who collaborate with agribusiness, are willing to participate in the sensing task of AMCS-enabled agriculture, sharing their collected data to the AMCS platform with the APPs. Thus, agribusiness can also acquire extensive and valuable data from the AMCS platform or even farmers directly to improve their equipment and techniques. Meanwhile, agribusiness can offer more advanced technical guidance to help farmers increase income. Thus, positive feedback will form in this way.

(iii) We propose seven application scenarios of AMCS based on existing agricultural problems. By analyzing agricultural characteristics, we present several general research issues of AMCS for the future. Specially, we take the problem of maintaining SILs as a special case to discuss the specific research in a natural scene.

Yuanhao Sun, Weimin Ding, Lei Shu, Kailiang Li, Yu Zhang, Zhangbing Zhou, Guangjie Han, On Enabling Mobile Crowd Sensing for Data Collection in Smart Agriculture – A Vision[J]. IEEE Systems Journal, 2021.

Design and Prospect of Anti-theft and Anti-destruction of Nodes in Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things

Based on the serious fact of theft and destruction of solar insecticidal lamp (SIL) in a long time, the anti-theft and anti-destruction hardware system of SIL is designed (Fig.1), and unmanned aerial vehicle insecticidal lamp (UAV-IL) (Fig.2), as an auxiliary equipment, is added to realize the anti-theft and anti-destruction of SIL in Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things (SIL-IoTs).

Kai Huang, Lei Shu*, Kailiang Li, Xing Yang, Yan Zhu, Xiaochan Wang, Qin Su. Design and Prospect of Anti-theft and Anti-destruction of Nodes in Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things[J]. Smart Agriculture, 2021. DOI: 10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.2.202102-SA034. (In Chinese with English abstract)

(黄凯, 舒磊, 李凯亮, 杨星, 朱艳, 汪小旵, 苏勤. 太阳能杀虫灯物联网节点的防盗防破坏设计及展望[J]. 智慧农业(中英文), 2021, 3(1): 129-143.)

Optimal Deployment of Solar Insecticidal Lamps over Constrained Locations in Mixed-Crop Farmlands

Fan Yang, Lei Shu*, Yuli Yang, Guangjie Han, Simon Pearson, Kailiang Li. Optimal Deployment of Solar Insecticidal Lamps over Constrained Locations in Mixed-Crop Farmlands[J].  IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 2021, 8(16):13095-13114.

A Survey on Smart Agriculture: Development Modes, Technologies, and Security and Privacy Challenges

1) The development status of smart agriculture is summarized and classified into three typical development modes: precision agriculture, facility agriculture, and order agriculture. Furthermore, 7 key technologies and 11 key applications are
discussed.

2) Security and privacy countermeasures are summarized as (1) authentication and access control, (2) privacy-preserving, (3) blockchain-based solutions for data integrity, (4) cryptography and key management, (5) physical countermeasures, and (6) intrusion detection systems.

3) Potential security challenges of smart agriculture are highlighted and divided into two aspects: (1) agricultural production and (2) information technology.

4) Agricultural equipment will also affect the security strategy. For instance, it is suggested that high voltage discharge interference of Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things should be considered as attacks or have an impact on security strategy. We found that high voltage discharge interference has an impact on data acquisition from the results of our additional experiments in this paper. 

Xing Yang, Lei Shu*, Jianing Chen, Mohamed Amine Ferrag, Jun Wu, Edmond Nurellari, Kai Huang. A Survey on Smart Agriculture: Development Modes, Technologies, and Security and Privacy Challenges[J]. IEEE-CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica, 2021, 8(2): 273-302.

Improved Coverage and Connectivity via Weighted Node Deployment in Solar Insecticidal Lamp Internet of Things

Fan Yang, Lei Shu*, Yuli Yang, Ye Liu, Timothy Gordon. Improved Coverage and Connectivity via Weighted Node Deployment in Solar Insecticidal Lamp Internet of Things[J].   IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 8(12):10170-10186.

Collaborative Industrial Internet of Things for Noise Mapping:Prospects and Research Opportunities

Exposure to environmental noise has harmful effects on human health from both physiological and mental aspects, such as annoyance, sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, or even permanent hearing impairment. This problem is further exacerbated in the industrial environments, where millions of workers are exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, noise mapping is essential and the first step to solve noise pollution problem.

However, either sound level meter-based measurement or computational model-based simulation, the two main noise mapping approaches at present, has its own limitations. To promote the development of noise mapping techniques, this article presents:

  • The framework of collaborative Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) for next-generation noise mapping, especially in industrial parks.
  • Moreover, other potential applications beyond noise mapping for smart factory are listed.
  • Lastly, the fundamental issues and suggestions for future research are discussed in detail.

Ye Liu, Lei Shu*, Zhiqiang Huo, Kim-Fung Tsang, Gerhard P. Hancke. Collaborative Industrial Internet of Things for Noise Mapping:Prospects and Research Opportunities.  IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 2021, 15(2):52-64.

High Voltage Discharge Exhibits Severe Effect on ZigBee-based Device in Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things

The main contributions are summarized as follows for many research communities, e.g., Internet of Things (IoTs), WSNs, reliability, and security:

1) If there is not a special design for a device that can release high voltage pulse discharge, we should not deploy the WSNs node nearby the device;

2) The use of the above device, as a method to attack WSNs, can lead to the abnormal working state.

[1] Kai Huang, Kailiang Li, Lei Shu*, Xing Yang. Demo Abstract: High Voltage Discharge Exhibits Severe Effect on ZigBee-based Device in Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things. IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE INFOCOM 2020), July 7th-9th, 2020, Virtual Conference.

[2] Kai Huang, Kailiang Li, Lei Shu*, Xing Yang, Timothy Gordon, Xiaochan Wang*. High Voltage Discharge Exhibits Severe Effect on ZigBee-based Device in Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things. IEEE Wireless Communications, 2020, 27(6): 140-145.

Photovoltaic Agricultural Internet of Things towards Realizing the Next Generation of Smart Farming

Kai Huang, Lei Shu*, Kailiang Li, Fan Yang, Guangjie Han, Xiaochan Wang*, Simon Pearson. Photovoltaic Agricultural Internet of Things towards Realizing the Next Generation of Smart Farming[J], IEEE Access, 2020, 8: 76300-76312.

From Industry 4.0 to Agriculture 4.0: Current Status, Enabling Technologies, and Research Challenges

Ye Liu, Xiaoyuan Ma, Lei Shu, Gerhard Hancke, Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz, From Industry 4.0 to Agriculture 4.0: Current Status, Enabling Technologies, and Research Challenges[J]. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 2021, 17(6):4322-4334.

Internet of Things for Noise Mapping in Smart Cities: State-of-the-Art and Future Directions

YE LIU_IEEE Network_噪音地图

Ye Liu, Xiaoyuan Ma, Lei Shu, Qing Yang, Yu Zhang, Zhiqiang Huo, Zhangbing Zhou, Internet of Things for Noise Mapping in Smart Cities: State-of-the-Art and Future Directions[J]. IEEE Network, 2020, 34(4):112-118.

A Partition-Based Node Deployment Strategy in Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things

Fan Yang, Lei Shu*, Kai Huang, Kailiang Li, Guangjie Han, Ye Liu. A Partition-Based Node Deployment Strategy in Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things[J]. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 2020, 7(11): 11223-11237.

Security and Privacy for Green IoT-based Agriculture: Review, Blockchain solutions, and Challenges

Mohamed Amine Ferrag, Lei Shu*, Xing Yang, Abdelouahid Derhab, Leandros Maglaras. Security and Privacy for Green IoT-Based Agriculture: Review, Blockchain Solutions, and Challenges[J].  IEEE Access, 2020, 8: 32031-32053.

Characteristics analysis and challenges for fault diagnosis in solar insecticidal lamps Internet of Things

Xing Yang, Lei Shu*, Kai Huang, Kailiang Li, Zhiqiang Huo, Yanfei Wang, Xinyi Wang, Qiaoling Lu, Yacheng Zhang. Characteristics Analysis and Challenges for Fault Diagnosis in Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things[J], Smart Agriculture, 2020, 2(02): 11-27. (In Chinese with English abstract)

(杨星, 舒磊, 黄凯, 李凯亮, 霍志强, 王彦飞, 王心怡, 卢巧玲, 张亚成. 太阳能杀虫灯物联网故障诊断特征分析及潜在挑战[J]. 智慧农业(中英文), 2020, 2(2): 11-27.)

Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things: Review and Open Research Issues

Kailiang Li, Lei Shu, Kai Huang, Yuanhao Sun, Fan Yang, Yu Zhang, Zhiqiang Huo, Yanfei Wang, Xinyi Wang, Qiaoling Lu, Yacheng Zhang. Research and Prospect of Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things[J]. Smart Agriculture, 2019, 1(3) : 13-28. (In Chinese with English abstract)

(李凯亮, 舒磊, 黄凯, 孙元昊, 杨帆, 张宇, 霍志强, 王彦飞, 王心怡, 卢巧玲, 张亚成. 太阳能杀虫灯物联网研究现状与展望[J]. 智慧农业(中英文), 2019, 1(3): 13-28.)